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This success confirmed him in his hope that at a later time, vhen all cause for jealousy would have disappeared, the Vishneh thorah would be received by all Jews as an authori- ative code.^ This hope has not been realised. r the criticised passage, but it seems tame and mild if com- pared with expressions used now and then by Maimonides about men who happened to hold opinions differing from his own. The method adopted in his professional practice he describes in a letter to his pupil, Ibn Aknin, as follows : '' You know how difficult this profession is for a conscientious and exact person who only states what he can support by argument or authority."' This method is more fully described in a treatise on hy- giene, composed for Alfadhel, son of Saladin, who was suffering from a severe illness and had applied to Maimon tice, and says : * "I reside in Egypt (or Fostat) ; the king ' Letter addressed to R. The congregation in Lunel, ignorant of Ibn Tibbon's undertaking, or desirous to possess the most correct translation of the Guide, addressed a very flattering letter to Maimonides, requesting him to translate the work into Hebrew. TTie copies known at present are all in Hebrew characters. XXXI and that a translation was being prepared by the ablest and fittest man, Babbi Samuel Ibn Tibbon.^ A second trans- lation was made later on by Jehudah Alcharizi.^ — The Guide delighted many, but it also met with much adverse criti- ciam on account of the peculiar views held by Maimonides concerning angels, prophecy, and miracles, especially on account of his assertion that if the Aristotelian proof for the Eternity of the Uniyerse had satisfied him, he woidd have found no difficulty in reconciling the Biblical account of the Creation with that doctrine.' The controversy on the Guide continued long after the death of Maimonides to divide the community, and it is difficult to say how far the author's hope to efiect a reconciliation between reason and revela- tion was realised. on the Mishneh thorah called Maggid mishneh ; but ai only a fe«r parts of this Comm. Joseph Caro wrote a complete Commentary, and at the same time he proposed to himself to refute the cri- ticisms of R. David (Rabad) and the author of the JECasa^oth ma$mon^'oth. But he had the satisfaction to learn that b was well received in most of the congregations of Israel, nd that there was a general desire to possess and study it. ^ Letter addressed by Maimonides to his pupil Ibn Aknin (Ibid., II. * The critic was guided in his strictures by the idea that the simple authority if Maimonides was not sufficient reason why the dedsions, w\dc\i\A |^^« V\^* XXVlll THE LIFE OF MOSES MAl MONIDES. Mordecai Tamah, and edited under tbe title o£ Peer ha-dor (Amsterdam, 17G5). The name of Maimonides was entered on the roll of physicians, he received a pension, and was introduced to the court of Saladin. It was composed in Arabic, and written in Hebrew characters.^ Subsequently it was translated into Hebrew by Rabbi Samuel Ibn Tibbon, in the lifetime of Maimonides, who was consulted by the translator on all difficult passages. This, however, is not the case ; Ibn Tibbon in his letter to Maimonides, suggests that his copy of the Guide was made from an original written in Arabic characters, and Maimonides in his answer does not deny it.Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. The ** Guide of the Perplexed " contains, therefore, an Intvoduction and the following four parts : — 1. i.-iv.) : 6, on Prophecy ; c, Mo Meh mercahhahy or the description of the divine chariot (Ezekiel, ch. According to this plan, the work ends with the seventh chapter of the Third Part. In the Introduction to the ^* Guide/' Maimonides (1) describes the object of the work and the method he has followed ; (2) treats of similes ; (3) gives " directions for the study of the work ;" and (4) discusses the most usual causes of inconsistencies in authors. The main difficulty is found in the ambiguity of the words employed to describe the mode of action of the Divine Being ; the question arises whether they are applied to the Deity and to other things in one and the same sense or equivocally; in the latter case the author distinguishes between homonyms pure and simple, figures, and hybrid terms. According to his opinion, it in- variably denotes "form" in the philosophical acceptation of the term, viz:, the complex of the essential properties of a thing.We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. A., for his kindness in supplying me with such information as I required. The chapters which follow may be considered as an appendix ; they treat of the following theological themes : the Existence of Evil, Onmiscience and Providence, Temptations, Design in Nature, in the Law, and in the Bi Uical Narratives, and finally the true Worship of God. In order to show that the Biblical anthropomorphisms do not imply the corporeality of the Deity, he seeks in each instance to demonstrate that the expression under examination is a perfect homonym de- noting things which are totally distinct from each other, and whenever such a demonstration is impossible, he as- sumes that the expression is a hybrid term, that is, being employed in one instance figuratively and in another ho- monymously. But to obviate objections he proposes an alter- native view, and takes Db!Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. (2.) An analysis of the whole of the Moreh Nebhuchim. It is true that some of his predecessors enunciated and demonstrated the Unity and the In- )oreality of the Divine Being, and they had interpreted ptural metaphors on the principle that ''the Law iks in the language of man " ; but our author adopted a ' and altogether original method.

See his last note on Maimonides* Introduction to the Mishneh thorah, * Comp. Jonathan of Lunel, and series of questions included in it. * Thefint part of this Yeraion was edited with notes hj Scheyer (London, 1861), the Mcond and third parts by Schlossberg (London, 1876, and Vienna, 187«). According to his opinion, man should only believe what he can grasp with his intellectual faculties, or perceive by his senses, or what he can accept on trustworthy authority. Astrological state- ments, not being founded on any of these three sources of knowledge, must be rejected. Secondly, a compulsory trans- gression of the Law does not render the transgressor liable to punishment, nor does it deprive him of lua privileges as a Jew. In the latter praise is bestowed upon those who would sacrifice their lives in gloriam Dei on occasions when the Law did not demand such a sacrifice ; according to the Mishneh-thorah,^ such martyrs are sinners, and almost guilty of suicide. The first part of the treatise, which in style and con- tents widely differs from the second part, and in which the author appears to have had no other object than to revile his opponent, is wholly unworthy of Maimonides.

.\ ■ m m % THE ENGLISH AND FOREIGN PHILOSOPHICAL LIBRARY. idiah further shows that the Divine attributes are either a Ufications of such of God's actions as are perceived by m, or they imply a negation. Every word selected for discussion bears upon some Scriptural text which, according to the opinion of the author, has been misinterpreted. He showed mercy to them, and His will to continue their trouble and misery ceased. The preposition n in bwritt;'* bayn has the force of D ; bwritt? '* bo370.* Grammarians give many instances of this use of the pre- ^ Eimchi likewise says id his Commentary on Judges x. Much less is it probable that Maimonides hid his own opinion under the cover of the Andalusian authority, from fear of being accused of heresy. Munk renders the firat by : ** Oil Ton explique tlairement/' and leaven t\i Q aecoud without translation. In this whole example nothing is mentioned that indicated his characteristics, and his essential properties, by yirtue of which he is king.

Abd-er-rahem al-fadhel ruled that a forced conversion was illegal, and acquitted Maimonides." According to Dzehebi it was in the house of this Abu'l- arab that Maimonides when outlawed, and in imminent danger of his life, found protection and hospitality in Spain. Osaiba, who lived in that city^ introduces his narrative as a mere rumour; when the report reached Alkifti, who was far away from Cairo, it had already assumed the form of an established fact. It was '' for him and for those like him " that the treatise was com- posed, and to him this work is iuscribed in the dedicatory letter with wbich the Introduction begins.

— On the Difference between Positive and Negative Attributes ... xxt L or Deut xxix.) was read, and also the history of the capture of the Ark by the Philistines (1 Sam. His remains were brought to Tiberias.' The general regard in which Maimonides was held, both by his contemporaries and by succeeding generations, has been expressed in the popular saying: "From Moses to Moses there was none like Moses. — Eacaminatioth of the proofs adduced for the alleged apostasy of Maimonides (pag. First of all, we have to examine the treatise on in- voluntary apostasy. It is, howeyer, by no means certain that Maimonides is the anthor of this treatise ; there is, on the contrary, sufficient reason to doubt the genuineness of the introductory phrase, *' Moses, the son of Maimon, said." The following are the arguments against its authenticity : — 1. E.g, : In one paragraph the opponent is called a sinner and transgressor, because he recommends martyrdom where the Law does not enjoin it, and in the next paragraph he assures such martyrs that their reward will be great because the Lord is pleased with such a sacrifice. THE L1F£ OF MOSES MAIMONIDES* XZXYU ref ate baseless and absurd assertions ; but the author appears to attribute little value to speech when he bases his prin- cipal argument on the fact that the tyrant demands of the Jews nothing but the mere utterance of a few words. It is remarkable that, contrary to the usual practice^ of Maimonides^ neither the person to whom the letter was addressed nor the person against whom it was directed is mentioned by name.

If some dicta be foxmd in the Talmud which appear to represent Astrology as a true source of knowledge, these may either be referred to the rejected opinion of a small minority, or may have an allegorical meaning, but they * Comp. In Fostat a mourning of three days was kept ; in Jerusalem a fast was appointed; a portion of the to- thaehak (Lev. In the course of this treatise the author seems to describe himself as belonging to the involuntary oon- verts ; for he says : " In this our involuntary conversion i£» do not simulate idolatry^ but merely a belief in Islam ; the Mahometans know that in reality we do not believe' in the truth of what we profess, and that ice deceive the king." "^ " What I consider the best thing to do for myself y my friends, and for a U who would follow my advice, is this — to quit the country, without the least regard to property, friends or family." * If Maimonides were the author of this treatise, his apos- tasy would seem to be established ; but at the same time also his great inconsistency. XXXT tordei here, and still more forcibly in a letter to the Jews in Yemeny^ he remained^ according to most of his biographers,' more than ten years in Mahometan countries in which the Jewish religion was not tolerated. The treatise contains inconsistencies which cannot be conceived to be the product of Maimonides' logical genius.

Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. Parts of the Translation have been contributed by Mr. The Talmud, the Midrashim, the Targimiim abound in paraphrases of this kind. It denotes also " blood," as in ll&nn UV tt7Q3n b DKTI h6, *' Thou shalt not eat the blood with the meat " (Deut. 12753 n/1'^rn nnn nnsn mi-i S '♦^ITN, " But the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bundle of life " (1 Sam. xxiil 8) ; bwi Dtt^l na^n TDy^ DM 1 Maimonide B here distinguishee three kinds of fi^fi S, ** soul ": 1, that which constitutes animal life in general : vitality, blood ; 2, that which constitutes human life in particular, heginning with the huth and ending with the death of each individual : reason, will ; 3, that part of man's individuality which ex- ists independently of his hody : soul. Jonathan, the son of Uzziel [in the Targum of the Prophets], did not translate this passage,^ because he understood 1S; Q3 to have the first signifi- cation, and finding, therefore, in these words sensation ascribed to Ood, he omitted them in the translation. 118a), the Hebrew text is given instead of the translation (Munk).



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