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The air force entered the review needing replacements for both a cheap advanced trainer and a new medium fighter.The review concluded that the primary function of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) would be to protect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the post-apartheid nation.In 2010, investigative journalists in South Africa revealed that the chief of the SANDF at the time of the deal, Siphiwe Nyanda, had received a loan from Hlongwane in 2005 to buy a house.The loan had been written off in 2009 when Nyanda became minister of communications.Hlongwane had given Nyanda a job in the interim years as head of the former’s group of companies, Ngwane Defence.Finally, in June 2011, Saab publicly announced that BAE, its marketing partner for the Gripen combat aircraft, had used a Saab subsidiary without its knowledge to pay out bribes, including ZAR 24 million between 20.

In particular, then-defence minister Joe Modise (who died in 2001) unilaterally decided to remove cost as a consideration for the package of fighter and trainer aircraft, which was ultimately awarded to BAE Systems and Saab for the Gripen fighter aircraft (Saab/BAE) and the Hawk trainer (BAE).In this environment, corruption was evidently a price worth paying to secure a foothold in the new market, and even some of the losing bidders, such as Daimler Benz Aerospace, were later found to have provided bribes.The alleged corruption associated with the package was meant to give each bidder an advantage in the requirements-setting and tender processes." data-src="" src="//" title="It's not hard to see what Ma, or any of China's uber-rich, see in the neighborho...

How did post-apartheid South Africa succumb to one of the most infamous and long-lasting corruption scandals in recent memory?The United States settled with BAE in the same year, demanding USD 400 million for violations of laws that barred bribes paid to secure deals in Saudi Arabia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and other countries.An investigation in Germany was active at least from 2006 to 2010, and focused on possibilities of wrongdoing at MAN Ferrostaal and Thyssen Krupp.The British investigation determined that BAE had paid roughly GBP 115 million in bribes to secure the deal, and had acted through numerous middlemen such as Richard Charter, a consultant, and John Bredenkamp, a Zimbabwean rugby player and later suspected arms dealer.

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